Norway

Political System

[1]

Norway is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system comprised of three branches: The Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch (Storntinget), and the Judicial Branch:

  • The Monarch: Largely ceremonial, but has several powers including appointing the Cabinet, presiding over Council of State, signing acts into law alongside the Prime Minister, hosting foreign visits, and serving as the Commander-in-Chief.

  • Executive Branch: Consists of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, both of which are appointed by the King; responsible for approving/signing bills, appointing office positions, and ratifying international treaties.

  • Legislative Branch: A unicameral system consisting of the Stortinget, a body of 169 members elected for four year terms in a proportional representation system. Responsible for enacting legislation and approving the nation’s budget. Also possesses the power to call a vote of no confidence.

  • The Judicial Branch: The judicial system combines customary law, civil law, and common law traditions and consists of a Supreme Court (18 Justices), courts of appeal, city and county courts, and conciliation councils. All judges in the system are appointed by the King.


[1] "Political System of Norway." Legislative Council Secretariat (2013): 1-5. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Current Political Leaders (2016)

[1]

  • King: Harald V

  • Prime Minister: Erna Solberg (Conservative)


[1] “Norway Profile—Leaders.” BBC News. BBC, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

National Statistics

[1]

  • Population: 5, 265, 158

  • Population Density: 23 persons per sq. km

  • Land Area: 304, 282 sq. km.

  • Estimated per capita income: $69,300

  • Racial Breakdown: Norwegian 94.4%, other European 3.6%, other 2%.

  • Unemployment Rate: 8%


[1] "The World Factbook: NORWAY." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 12 Jan. 2017. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

Refugee Resettlement Program History

[1]

  • 1980’s: Beginning of annual quota

  • 2008: The Norway Immigration Act, establishes general legal criteria for refugee resettlement in the country

  • 2011:

    • UNHCR’s Global Resettlement Solidarity Initiative for North Africa caused Norway to add 250 places to the annual quota and made available 60 additional spaces within the regular quota.

    • Norway Institutes stricter regulations concerning asylum policy, including measures such as age requirements in family cases and new integration criteria.

  • 2013: Norway focused on the resettlement of Congolese refugees [2]

  • 2017: Norway institutes a policy stating that Afghans lacking official residence in the country will be deported.


[1] “Norway.” European Resettlement Network. ICMC Europe, 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

[2] “Tightening of Norway’s Asylum Rules.” Government.no. The Norwegian Government, 1 Niv. 2017. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

Refugee Resettlement Program Funding

Based on its quota, Norway allocates funds in its budget toward refugee resettlement. Additionally, Norway pays for expenses of the International Organization for Migration, which handles travel arrangements for refugees resettled in the country. The Cultural Orientation program is funded by the Directorate of Integration and Diversity. Furthermore, refugees receive a stipend of NOK 180,136 each year from the municipality for attending the orientation. For each refugee resettled, the municipalities receive a subsidy of NOK 767,400 over a period of five years. [1]


[1] The Government of Norway. “Norway.” UNHCR Resettlement Handbook. UNHCR, 2011.

Resettlement Data 2002-2014

Country of Origin

# Settled (2002-2014)

Afghanistan

947

Algeria

5

Angola

4

Azerbaijan

16

Bangladesh

4

Burundi

405

Belarus

1

Benin

3

Bhutan

378

Bosnia and Herzegovina

1

Cambodia

97

Cabo Verde

Central African Republic

2

Chad

8

China

48

Cameroon

4

Congo

403

Colombia

85

Cote d’Ivoire

13

Croatia

9

Cuba

3

Democratic Republic of Congo

1119

Ecuador

10

Egypt

5

El Salvador

65

Eritrea

1408

Ethiopia

255

Guinea

3

Ghana

2

India

22

Indonesia

80

Iran

1184

Iraq

576

Israel

1

Jordan

9

Kazakhstan

3

Kyrgyzstan

2

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

2

Lebanon

2

Liberia

838

Libya

8

Malaysia

7

Mali

2

Mongolia

2

Morocco

2

Myanmar

2975

Nepal

5

Nigeria

3

Pakistan

8

Philippines

126

Russian Federation

62

Rwanda

153

Senegal

1

Sierra Leone

19

Somalia

1410

Serbia and Kosovo

22

Sri Lanka

98

Stateless

505

Sudan

335

Syria

806

Thailand

11

Tajikistan

4

Turkmenistan

13

Turkey

3

Uganda

6

United States

1

Uzbekistan

23

Vietnam

79

Yemen

2

Zambia

20

Zimbabwe

5

[1]


[1] “Resettlement Statistics- Norway” UNHCR Population Statistics. UNHCR, n.d. Wed. Feb. 2017.

Asylum Seekers Recognized

Country of Origin

2012

2013

2014

2015

Afghanistan

264

221

183

276

Angola

3

2

0

0

Azerbaijan

-

-

-

6

Burundi

0

2

0

0

Cameroon

0

3

-

0

China

0

1

30

38

Côte d’Ivoire

0

5

0

0

DRC

1

10

-

0

Egypt

0

2

-

0

Eritrea

4

2204

1918

2610

Ethiopia

242

241

181

211

Gambia

0

1

-

0

Guinea

0

8

-

0

Guinea-Bissau

0

1

0

0

Iran

140

166

112

70

Iraq

79

46

22

38

Jordan

0

1

0

Kazakhstan

0

0

6

0

Kyrgyzstan

0

1

0

-

Liberia

0

1

0

0

Libya

0

4

0

-

Mali

0

4

0

0

Morocco

0

3

-

0

Myanmar

2

4

5

0

Montenegro

1

0

0

0

Mongolia

1

0

0

0

Mauritania

1

0

0

0

Nigeria

17

35

5

-

Pakistan

13

13

14

25

Romania

0

10

0

0

Russian Federation

46

91

28

7

Rwanda

3

0

0

0

Sudan

378

329

136

375

Sierra Leone

1

3

0

0

Somalia

1127

963

384

139

South Sudan

2

0

0

0

Sri Lanka

3

1

-

0

Syria

347

278

575

1366

Tajikistan

1

0

0

0

Tunisia

1

0

0

0

Turkey

3

2

0

10

Uganda

19

23

16

17

Ukraine

0

1

0

0

United Arab Emirates

0

1

0

0

Uzbekistan

19

9

6

50

Stateless

57

103

145

327

Yemen

9

2

6

0

Zambia

0

1

-

0

Zimbabwe

0

4

0

0

[1]


[1] “Asylum Seeker Statistics- Norway” UNHCR Population Statistics. UNHCR, n.d. Wed. Feb. 2017.

Resettlement Destinations

Refugees are settled in municipalities; this process is managed by the Directorate of Integration and Diversity, which selects areas of settlement from anywhere between 300 of 430 total municipalities. The number of refugees settled in each municipality is determined by responses from local authorities to settlement requests. Municipalities may specify particular groups they would prefer to house, for the settlement process is voluntary. Usually, municipalities house refugees from a singular ethnic group or country of origin in order to maintain networks and facilitate development. [1]


[1] “Resettlement Statistics- Norway” UNHCR Population Statistics. UNHCR, n.d. Wed. Feb. 2017.

Refugee Resettlement Diagram

[1]


[1] “Who Does What in the Immigration Administration?” UDI. The Directorate of Immigration, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

Refugee Resettlement Overview

[1]

Beginning in the 1980’s Norway established a refugee resettlement quota of 1,620. Though the Immigration Act of 2008 provides general criteria for the resettlement process, there are not any specific laws in place for regulation. In order to be recognized, a refugee must meet conditions according to the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Additionally, Norway emphasizes humanitarian need in the resettlement process, and enacts quota such as 60% of those resettled being women and girls (‘Women and Girls at Risk [WAR] Cases’).

In order to resettle refugees, the Norwegian Parliament works with the Ministry of Justice and Emergency Planning, the Ministry of Children, Equality, and Social Inclusion, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Information and suggestions are provided by the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI) and the Directorate of Integration and Diversity (IMDI). The UDI is ultimately responsible for final decisions. Refugees are selected accordingly:

  • 870 per year via selections missions by UDI and IMDI

  • 250 based on dossier submissions from UNHCR

The average time from selection to arrival is approximately 4.5 months and varies on a case-by-case basis. Decisions on emergency cases are made within 48 hours of application. All refugees admitted into the country receive a residence permit of three years, after which they may apply for permanent residency. Citizenship may be attained after having resided in the country for seven years.


[1] “Norway.” European Resettlement Network. ICMC Europe, 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

Lead Resettlement Organizations & Government Ministries

Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI)[1]

Office Locations: There are 19 offices throughout the Norwegian municipalities available to aid refugees in the resettlement process. The headquarters is located at Utlendingsdirektoratet Hausmanns gate 21 0182 Oslo.

Responsibilities and Functions: The Directorate of Immigration is the central immigration agency in the country and is responsible for all immigration to the country, facilitating the decision-making process, processing applications and providing asylum, residence and work permits. Additionally, they provide temporary housing for asylum seekers during the interim application process.

Leadership and Contacts:

Director General: Frode Forfang

Deputy Director General: Birgette Lange

 City: Oslo

Affiliates and Partners:

The Ministry of Justice and Public Security

Police Districts

The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

Website: https://www.udi.no/en/

 

The Directorate of Integration (IMDi)[2]

Established: 2006

Funding: The IMDi manages grants to municipalities, counties, NGOs and businesses. Such grants are subsidized by the state.

Office Locations: The IMDi has branch offices in Narvik, Trondheim, Bergen, Kristiansand, Gjøvik, and Oslo (HQ).

Responsibilities and Functions: The IMDi is responsible for the actual implementation of settlement policy and facilitates the integration process in each municipality. This process includes an introduction program, classes in Norwegian and social sciences, aid with interpretation, administrating grants, and overall guidance in the settlement process.

Leadership and Contacts:

Director General: Libe Rieber-Mohn

 City: Oslo

Affiliates and Partners:

The Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion

Municipality Governments

Website: http://www.imdi.no/en/

 

The Immigration Appeals Board (UNE)[3]

Funding: The Ministry of Justice and Public Security controls the budget of the UNE. Thus, their expenditures, salaries, purchases, etc., are accounted for in the government budget.

Responsibilities and Functions: The UNE is responsible for handling appeals cases against rejection and operates under the Ministry of Justice and Public Security. Decisions are made in conjunction by a board chair and two board members (out of 300) who hold office in the UNE. UNE decisions establish precedent for future cases handled by the UDI.

City: Oslo

Leadership and Contacts:

Director General: Ingunn-Sofie Aursnes

Head of Communications: Bjørn Lyster

Affiliates and Partners:

The Ministry of Justice and Public Security

Landinfo

UDI

Website: http://www.une.no/en/

 

The Norwegian Country of Origin Information Centre (Landinfo)[4]:

Established: 1 January 2005

Funding: Landinfo’s financial needs are accounted in the budget of Norway.

Office Locations: The organization has one central office located in Storgata.

Responsibilities and Functions: Landinfo is an independent organization affiliated with the UDI. It provides research and analysis concerning a refugee’s country of origin to the Norwegian Ministry of Justice. Though Landinfo does not take part in the decision making process, such information is used in decisions by the UNE.

Leadership and Contacts:

Leader: Joerg Lange

Affiliates and Partners

Norwegian Directorate of Immigration

The Immigration Appeals Board

Website: http://www.landinfo.no/

 

The Norwegian Parliament (The Storting)[5]

The Storting provides a basic framework for policy concerning refugees, immigrants, and the integration process. For the latter, The Storting works directly with municipalities following the principles of the Norwegian Introduction Act. This process determines the amount of integration grants each municipality receives in exchange for settling refugees.

            Website: https://www.stortinget.no/en/In-English/

 

The Ministry of Justice and Public Security[6]

            This ministry, while generally responsible for maintain the rule of law in Norway, also directs the UDI and UNE using laws, regulations, and allocations of budgets and is therefore responsible in part for refugee, immigration and integration policies.

            Website: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/jd/about-the-ministry-of-justice-and-the-po/id468/


[1] “About Us.” UDI. Norwegian Directorate of Immigration, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

[2] “Settlement.” IMDi. The Directorate of Integration, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

[3] “This is UNE.” Utlendingsnemnda. Immigration Appeals Board, 14 Mar. 2016. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

[4] “About Landinfo.” Landinfo. Landinfo, 5 Dec. 2016. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

[5] “About Us. Stortinget. The Norwegian Parliament, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

[6] Ministry of Justice and Public Security. “About the Ministry of Justice.” Government.no. Government Administration Services, 15 Aug. 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.



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