Sweden

Political System

[1]

The government of Sweden is a parliamentary democracy operating under a unitary system and is composed of two branches:

  • The Riksdag: Acts as the primary representative and legislative body; it is a unicameral body composed of 349 members and eight parties (the Social Democratic Party, the Moderate Party, the Sweden Democrats Party, the Green Party, the Centre Party, the Left Party, the Liberal Party, and the Christian Democrats). Direct elections take place every four years using the system of proportional representation (though a party must achieve at least 4% of the votes in order to gain representation in Parliament). The Riksdag is responsible for appointing the Prime Minister, a member of the majority party in parliament.

  • The Government: This branch is created by the Prime Minister and is composed of a Cabinet of ministers. This branch functions as the executive and is responsible for domestic and foreign affairs.


[1] Sweden. The Swedish Institute. Sweden.se. N.p., 29 June 2016. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Current Political Leaders (2016)

[1]

  • King: Carl XVI Gustaf

  • Prime Minister: Stefan Lofven (Social Democrats Party)

  • Deputy Prime Minister: Åsa Romson (Green Party)


[1] "Sweden Profile - Leaders." BBC News. BBC, 22 Apr. 2015. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

National Statistics

[1]

  • Population: 9,880,604 (85.8% urban, 14.2% rural)

  • Population Density: 21 inhabitants per kilometer squared

  • Racial Breakdown: Predominantly Swedes with Finnish and Sami Minorities; Foreign Born/ First-Generation Immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

  • Estimated Per Capita Income: $47,900 per capita (43918.77 euros per capita)

  • Unemployment Rate: 4%


[1] "The World Factbook: SWEDEN." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 12 Jan. 2017. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Refugee Resettlement Program History

The Swedish refugee resettlement program as it exists today is regulated by the 2005 Aliens Act that established basic criteria for resettlement. The act outlined definitions of refugees, details about permits, and general work eligibility. Aside from this document, the Nordic countries (Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark) have a long tradition and history of refugee resettlement, all having ratified and implemented both the 1951 Convention on Refugees and its corresponding 1967 Protocol. [1]


[1] "Sweden and Migration." Sweden.se. The Swedish Institute, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Refugee Resettlement Program Funding

            Annually, Sweden receives spending authorization from both the Parliament and the Swedish Migration Board to allocate toward its program. Municipalities that choose to participate in the resettlement program receive a grant of EUR 9,100 per adult/child and EUR 5700 for individuals over the age of sixty-five. This grant is distributed on a monthly-basis throughout a two-year period. Additionally, each municipality receives a one-off grant consisting of EUR 830 for adults and EUR 332 for children, but not for those aged sixty-five and over.[1]


[1] European Resettlement Programme. “Sweden.” Resettlement.eu, Eurostat, May 2013. Web. 25 Feb. 2017

Resettlement Data 2002-2014

Country of Origin

#Settled (2002-2014)

Bulgaria

33

Bosnia

4762

Kosovo

1372

Serbia and Montenegro

7464

Poland

20

Romania

61

Russia

3171

Turkey

876

Eritrea

16596

Ethiopia

1515

Somalia

26,411

Uganda

599

Chile

59

Colombia

1610

Cuba

151

Afghanistan

17,992

Bangladesh

428

Iraq

34,718

Iran

7126

China

439

Lebanon

885

Sri Lanka

155

Syria

36,935

Vietnam

171

[1]


[1]Refugee Resettlement Statistics- Sweden.” UNHCR Population Statistics. UNHCR, n.d. Wed. Feb. 2017.

Asylum Seekers Recognized

Country of Origin

2012

2013

2014

2015

Afghanistan

-

947

714

380

Albania

28

6

11

25

Algeria

1

5

0

0

Angola

-

1

0

0

Armenia

2

6

6

54

Azerbaijan

20

2

34

34

Bahrain

-

-

12

0

Bangladesh

17

28

10

5

Belarus

5

4

9

6

Bosnia and Herzegovina

-

1

0

0

Burundi

-

3

0

0

Burkina Faso

-

1

5

0

Cameroon

12

17

12

-

China

76

19

17

0

Côte d’Ivoire

2

12

0

0

Djibouti

-

1

0

0

DRC

24

28

12

5

Congo

1

3

0

0

Colombia

1

1

0

0

Comoros

-

4

0

0

Cuba

1

3

0

0

Egypt

31

35

48

40

El Salvador

0

0

0

5

Eritrea

204

788

5131

6337

Ethiopia

71

103

135

155

Gambia

9

28

15

6

Georgia

-

8

5

5

Ghana

4

9

7

0

Guinea

9

10

8

0

Guinea-Bissau

1

1

0

0

Iran

618

859

449

192

Iraq

325

254

117

278

Jordan

6

9

35

15

Kazakhstan

3

12

11

0

Kenya

2

8

0

0

N. Korea

-

1

0

-

S. Korea

-

1

0

0

Kyrgyzstan

13

14

0

0

Kuwait

2

10

0

0

Lebanon

8

23

16

19

Libya

11

23

22

11

Macedonia

-

1

0

0

Mali

3

4

0

0

Malaysia

1

0

0

-

Mauritania

-

3

0

0

Mongolia

7

-

5

0

Morocco

3

14

16

13

Myanmar

-

1

0

0

Nepal

1

-

0

0

Niger

1

-

0

0

Nigeria

33

63

60

35

Palestine

-

-

5

126

Pakistan

47

46

47

23

Romania

-

1

0

0

Russia

81

171

194

95

Rwanda

5

3

0

0

Saudi Arabia

1

6

0

13

Senegal

3

5

9

0

Serbia and Kosovo

12

3

0

-

Sierra Leone

6

6

13

0

Somalia

331

867

781

682

Sri Lanka

1

5

0

0

Stateless

324

768

580

2113

Sudan

29

69

45

49

Swaziland

-

1

762

0

Syria

1161

1992

1759

1926

Tajikistan

1

7

5

0

Tanzania

3

1

0

0

Togo

1

0

0

0

Tunisia

1

3

0

0

Turkey

17

16

0

0

Uganda

71

193

103

55

Ukraine

-

-

9

0

Unknown

10

14

9

9

Uzbekistan

37

47

37

28

Yemen

42

78

20

34

Zambia

2

0

0

0

Zimbabwe

2

5

0

0

[1]


[1] “Asylum Statistics- Sweden.” UNHCR Population Statistics. UNHCR, n.d. Wed. Feb. 2017.

Resettlement Destinations

         Refugees are resettled on a municipality basis; currently, 150 of the 290 municipalities receive refugees (this is a voluntary action). The number of those resettled is determined by a county-specific quota established by the Swedish Migration Board, Public Employment Services, and the County Administrative Boards. Refugees are free to move between municipalities provided they find their own housing. [1]


[1] European Resettlement Programme.

Refugee Resettlement Diagram

Refugee Resettlement Overview

[1]

Refugee resettlement in Sweden is largely allocated by the Swedish Migration Board, a body that governs which refugees are admitted, provides permits, and decides the location refugees will be sent. Practical matters, such as transportation and housing logistics, are handled by the International Organization for Migration. The criteria for resettlement is governed by the Aliens Act of 2005 and largely applies to individuals who are facing a fear of persecution, harm, or death from their country of origin as a result of their race/ethnicity, gender, nationality, sexual orientation, or religious/political beliefs. Sweden also allows a limited amount of refugees to enter on the basis of health/medical reason, but on the requirement that the treatment can only be found in Sweden. Each case submitted to the country is reviewed and approved by the Security Police. Lastly, Sweden’s EU allocated annual quota is 1900 refugees.

 

There are two methods of selection in the process: Dossier and In-Country Selection:

  1. Dossier Selection: a potential refugee must present identification documents and personal data including family details, linguistic skills, educational background and past working experience (if available). Submitted cases are reviewed by the SMB and the decision is made by an assigned case officer. Those accepted can only apply for travel documents and official recognition after they have arrived in the country.

  2. In Country Selection: arranged in cooperation between the Swedish embassy and the UNHCR using the Pre-Mission Questionnaire for Resettlement Interview Missions and the corresponding checklist (both supplied by the UNHCR). Applicants must clearly state and provide details about any relatives currently residing in Sweden. In order to make a decision, a series of interviews are conducted with applicants.

Both forms of resettlement are usually processed within 20 working days, while emergency cases are usually process in 5 working days through the dossier selection process.


[1] The Swedish Government. “Sweden.” UNHCR Resettlement Handbook. UNHCR, 2011.

Lead Resettlement Organizations

Swedish Migration Board (SMB)[1]:

Established: 1969

Office locations: 42 total; Headquarters located in Norrköping, Östergötland

Responsibilities and Functions: The Swedish Migration Board decides on how to allocate the refugee quota (1900), reviews cases, decides on resident permits, and makes travel arrangements for those granted refugee status/resettlement.

Leadership & Contacts:

            Anders Danielsson, CEO

Affiliates & Partners:

            Ministry of Justice, Stockholm

            Internal Organization for Migration

 

International Organization for Migration (IOM)[2]:

Established: 1951

Budget: US$1.675 billion (2013)

Office locations: 165 member states; Headquarters located in Geneva, Switzlerland.

Responsibilities and Functions: The IOM assists in the placement and transportation of refugees, facilitates economic and social development throughout the migration process, and is dedicated to upholding the general welfare of migrants.

Leadership & Contacts:

            William Lacy Swing (U.S)

Affiliates & Partners:

            Works with over 60 NGOs: http://www.iom.int/observer-status-0

 

Swedish Public Employment Service (PES)[3]:

Established: January 1, 2008

Funding: The PES is funded by the Swedish Parliament and Government, amounting to approximately 67 billion SEK annually. Of this money, 30 billion SEK is used for unemployment benefits, 13 billion SEK for wage subsidies, 7 billion for wages and operating costs, 9 billion for labor market programs, and 4 billion for introduction assignments.

Office locations: 280 local employment offices that are divided into 10 market areas throughout the country. The head office is located at Hälsingegatan 38, Stockholm.

Responsibilities and Functions: The PES facilitates employments of refugees in finding matches between employers and those seeking work. In doing so, the organization aids the integration into both the country and the labor market. In addition to providing job matches, the PES helps refugees gain basic language skills and a sense of self-sufficiency.

Leadership & Contacts:

            Mikael Sjöberg, Director General

City: Stockholm

Affiliates & Partners:

            Swedish Employment Service Arts and Culture—Kungsgatan 6

            Swedish Employment Service Seafarers—Rosenlundsgatan 4


[1] "About Us." To the Swedish Migration Agency. Swedish Migration Board, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

[2] "About IOM." International Organization for Migration. IOM, 15 Dec. 2016. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

[3] "Welcome to Arbetsförmedlingen." Till Startsidan. Arbetsförmedlingen, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.



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